- 6 Health Benefits of CBD Oil — and a Look at Side Effects
- Heads up: Is CBD legal?
- Navigating sciatica pain flare ups
- Just one thing
- CBD Oil: What are 9 Proven or Possible Health Benefits?
- Official answer
- What is CBD?
- 1. Epilepsy
- 2. Pain
- 3. Arthritis
- 4. Anxiety
- 5. Depression
- 6. Sleep disorders
- 7. Acne
- 8. Parkinson’s Disease
- 9. Nausea and vomiting
- Other conditions
- Related medical questions
- Drug information
- Related support groups
CBD Oil: What are 9 Proven or Possible Health Benefits
CBD has been studied for its role in treating a number of health issues other than those outlined above.
6 Health Benefits of CBD Oil — and a Look at Side Effects
Cannabidiol oil, or CBD oil, is a popular natural remedy for many ailments which is derived from cannabis. CBD oil benefits include pain relief and relaxation without any mind-altering effects.
People make CBD oil by extracting it from the cannabis plant and diluting it with a carrier oil like coconut oil or hemp seed oil. It is one of more than 100 chemical compounds called cannabinoids that are found in the cannabis plant, Cannabis sativa ( 1 ).
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main psychoactive cannabinoid found in cannabis, which means it causes the sensation of getting high that’s often associated with cannabis. However, unlike THC, CBD is not psychoactive.
CBD can be found in various products online and in stores, including dietary supplements, bath soaks, drinks, and food.
It continues to gain momentum in the health and wellness world, with some scientific studies finding that it may ease symptoms of conditions such as chronic pain and anxiety. But is it the right choice for you?
This article covers 6 evidence-backed health benefits of CBD, as well as potential side effects and safety concerns related to CBD products.
Heads up: Is CBD legal?
Hemp-derived CBD products (with less than 0.3% THC) are legal on the federal level but are still illegal under some state laws.
Cannabis-derived CBD products are illegal on the federal level but are legal under some state laws.
Check your state’s laws and those of anywhere you travel. And keep in mind that nonprescription CBD products are not FDA-approved and may be inaccurately labeled.
Cannabis has been used to treat pain since as far back as 2900 B.C. ( 2 ).
More recently, scientists have discovered that certain components of cannabis, including CBD, are responsible for its pain-relieving effects.
The human body contains a specialized system called the endocannabinoid system, which is involved in regulating a variety of functions, including sleep, appetite, pain sensation, and immune system response ( 3 ).
The body produces endocannabinoids, which are neurotransmitters that bind to cannabinoid receptors in your nervous system.
Studies have shown that CBD may help reduce chronic pain by affecting endocannabinoid receptor activity, reducing inflammation, and interacting with neurotransmitters ( 4 ).
CBD topicals have helped provide pain relief, especially on days when I have a sciatica flare-up. I’ve used full-spectrum CBD topicals (primarily creams and salves) on my lower back in addition to doing physical therapy exercises along with yoga, swimming, and long city walks. I’ve noticed that CBD does not reduce my pain in any sort of permanent or lasting way. However, using CBD for my lower back pain does help reduce the pain temporarily. I have found that isolate oil (pure CBD, no THC) is the most helpful in reducing my pain and general stress levels. Full-spectrum oils like Aspen Green’s have also been nice to have in my arsenal to battle pain!
Some research suggests that CBD may be effective for certain types of pain, including nerve pain and back pain, when used on its own. However, it seems to be most effective when combined with THC ( 5 , 6 ).
Several human studies have found that a combination of CBD and THC is effective in treating pain related to multiple sclerosis (MS) and arthritis.
An oral spray called Sativex (nabiximols), which is a 1:1 combination of THC and CBD, is approved in several countries to treat pain related to MS.
A study that included 47 people with MS examined the effects of taking Sativex for a month. The participants experienced improvements in pain, walking ability, and muscle spasms ( 7 ).
Still, the study didn’t include a control group, so placebo effects cannot be ruled out ( 7 ).
In one review, researchers noted that Sativex may benefit those with MS-associated neuropathic pain and chronic severe neuropathic pain. The review also found that Sativex may help relieve anxiety and stress, which are major drivers of chronic pain ( 8 ).
Additionally, some research suggests that CBD may relieve symptoms of rheumatic diseases such as fibromyalgia.
A study that included survey data from 2,701 people with fibromyalgia found that those who used CBD for pain relief generally reported slight to significant improvement in symptoms ( 9 ).
And according to preclinical evidence from rodent studies, CBD may have beneficial effects on pain and inflammation related to arthritis, but human studies are lacking ( 10 ).
Although researchers are cautiously optimistic that CBD may be helpful in the treatment of some types of pain, especially when combined with THC, more high quality studies are needed to determine its effectiveness in pain management.
CBD, especially in combination with THC, may be effective for reducing certain types of pain associated with conditions such as MS and fibromyalgia. Still, more research is needed to investigate its potential use in pain management
Anxiety disorders and other mental health disorders can have devastating impacts on overall health and well-being.
Mental health disorders are often treated with pharmaceutical drugs, which can cause a number of side effects, including drowsiness, agitation, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, and headaches ( 11 ).
What’s more, medications like benzodiazepines have the potential for dependence and may lead to substance use disorder.
CBD oil has shown promise as a treatment for some mental health disorders, such as anxiety disorders, leading many people who live with these conditions to become interested in this natural approach.
In a Brazilian study, 57 men received either oral CBD or a placebo 90 minutes before they underwent a simulated public speaking test. The researchers found that a 300-mg dose of CBD was the most effective at significantly reducing anxiety during the test ( 12 ).
Little to no effect was reported in those who took the placebo, a 150-mg dose of CBD, or a 600-mg dose of CBD ( 12 ).
CBD oil has been used to safely treat insomnia and anxiety in children with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a type of anxiety disorder ( 13 ).
A small 2019 study also found that CBD was effective for reducing PTSD-related symptoms, including nightmares, in adults ( 14 ).
Several other studies have found that CBD may be effective for those with social anxiety and other anxiety-related disorders ( 15 ).
Even though some people find that CBD improves symptoms related to depression, human evidence of CBD’s potential antidepressant abilities is currently limited ( 15 ).
However, results from several studies suggest that it may help reduce depressive symptoms in those with cannabis use disorders ( 15 ).
Research investigating the effects of CBD on symptoms of anxiety and depression is ongoing.
In fact, a study evaluating the possible effectiveness of 150–300 mg of CBD per day for 12 weeks on anxiety and depression symptoms in people with bipolar disorder is expected to be completed in April 2022 ( 15 ).
CBD use has been shown to improve some symptoms related to anxiety disorders. Researchers are currently investigating how CBD may be used in the treatment of other mental health disorders.
CBD may help reduce some cancer-related symptoms and side effects related to cancer treatment, such as nausea, vomiting, and pain.
An older study looked at the effects of CBD and THC in 177 people with cancer-related pain who did not experience relief from pain medication.
Those treated with an extract containing both compounds experienced a significant reduction in pain compared with those who received only THC extract ( 16 ).
A review of five studies found some evidence that Sativex may help reduce cancer-related pain in some people ( 17 ).
However, findings from studies investigating the effects of cannabis and cannabinoids like CBD on cancer-related nausea, pain, and decreased appetite have been mixed ( 18 ).
Even though CBD may be helpful for some people with cancer, more research is needed to determine whether CBD should be used more regularly in cancer symptom management.
If you have cancer and are interested in using CBD or other cannabis-derived products, it’s important to consult your healthcare team. These products may not be safe, appropriate, or effective for all people with cancer.
Though CBD may improve certain cancer-related symptoms in some people, research findings are currently mixed and more studies are needed to assess its effectiveness and safety.
Researchers believe that CBD’s ability to act on the endocannabinoid system and other brain-signaling systems may provide benefits for those with neurological disorders.
In fact, one of the most studied uses for CBD is in treating neurological disorders such as epilepsy and MS. Though research in this area is still relatively new, several studies have shown promising results.
Sativex has been shown to be a safe and effective way to reduce muscle spasticity in people with MS.
It reduced spasms in 75% of 276 people with MS who were experiencing muscle spasticity that was resistant to medications ( 19 ).
In another study, researchers gave 214 people with severe epilepsy 0.9–2.3 grams of CBD oil per pound (2–5 grams per kg) of body weight. Their seizures reduced by a median of 36.5% ( 20 ).
One more study found that CBD oil significantly reduced seizure activity in children with Dravet syndrome, a complex childhood epilepsy disorder, compared with a placebo ( 21 ).
However, some people in both of these studies experienced adverse reactions associated with CBD treatment, such as convulsions, fever, and fatigue.
CBD has also been researched for its potential effectiveness in treating several other neurological diseases.
For example, several studies have shown that treatment with CBD may improve quality of life and sleep quality in people with Parkinson’s disease ( 22 ).
However, researchers note that there’s currently a lack of high quality data. That means there’s not enough evidence available to support the use of CBD in the clinical treatment of Parkinson’s disease ( 22 ).
But one CBD product has actually been approved by the FDA for use in the treatment of several seizure disorders.
Epidiolex, a prescription cannabidiol product, was approved for use by the FDA in 2018 for the treatment of seizures associated with two severe forms of epilepsy, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome.
In 2020, Epidiolex received FDA approval for the treatment of seizures caused by tuberous sclerosis complex, a rare genetic disease that causes benign tumors to grow in the brain and other areas of the body ( 23 ).
CBD may be effective for treating seizures related to several health conditions. The prescription CBD product Epidiolex has received FDA approval to treat seizures related to rare, seizure-causing conditions such as Dravet syndrome.
Some research has linked CBD with several benefits for the heart and circulatory system, including the ability to lower high blood pressure.
High blood pressure is linked to higher risks of a number of health conditions, including stroke, heart attack, and metabolic syndrome ( 24 ).
Studies indicate that CBD may be beneficial for people with high blood pressure.
In a small study, 9 healthy men were treated with 600 mg of CBD oil. The CBD treatment reduced resting blood pressure compared with a placebo ( 25 ).
In the same study, the men also took part in stress tests that normally increase blood pressure. Interestingly, the single dose of CBD led the men to experience a smaller blood pressure increase than normal in response to these tests ( 25 ).
Another study that included 26 healthy men found that treatment with 600 mg of CBD for 7 days led to significant reductions in blood pressure in the short term compared with a placebo group. However, the effect was lost after 7 days ( 26 ).
The CBD group maintained lower blood pressure levels in response to stress compared with the placebo group after repeated doses over time.
The researchers also found that the CBD group had reduced arterial stiffness and improved blood flow through their arteries after repeated CBD dosing compared to the placebo group ( 26 ).
Overall, these findings are encouraging, but we need more studies of the potential benefits of CBD treatment on heart health.
Though more human studies are needed, CBD may benefit heart health in several ways, including by reducing blood pressure and improving artery function.
CBD has been studied for its role in treating a number of health issues other than those outlined above.
Though more studies are needed, CBD is thought to provide the following health benefits:
- Antipsychotic effects. Studies suggest that CBD may help people with schizophrenia and other mental health conditions by reducing symptoms of psychosis ( 27 ).
- Substance abuse treatment. CBD may be helpful for relieving anxiety and depression in people who have a dependence on certain drugs, including heroin ( 28 , 29 ).
- Possible extension of life in those with glioblastoma. Recent studies suggest that treatment with a combination of CBD and THC may help extend the life of some people with an aggressive form of cancer called glioblastoma, yet research is limited ( 30 ).
- Possible improvement in sleep. Some studies suggest that CBD might help improve sleep in people with certain sleep disorders, though more research is needed ( 31 , 32 ).
Some studies suggest that CBD may help with substance abuse disorders, mental health disorders, and certain types of cancers. However, we need more research in humans to find out more about these potential effects.
Though CBD is generally well-tolerated and is considered safe, it may cause adverse reactions in some people.
Side effects noted in studies include ( 33 , 34 ):
- changes in appetite and weight
Other side effects, including abnormal liver function test results, drowsiness, sedation, and pneumonia, have been reported in childhood epilepsy studies. But these effects could stem from CBD interacting with other medications, such as clobazam ( 34 ).
In fact, CBD interacts with several medications, including pain medications, antidepressants, seizure medications, and diabetes medications. Before you try CBD oil, discuss it with a healthcare professional to assess safety and avoid potentially harmful interactions ( 35 , 36 ).
Additionally, it’s important to note that the market is currently saturated with CBD products, many of which are low quality.
CBD is added to foods, beverages, dietary supplements, and body care products, and these items are often marketed as a way to improve stress, pain, and sleep issues.
However, this does not mean you should include any of these items in your diet or wellness routine.
Although some evidence suggests that CBD may be helpful for certain aspects of health, dosing varies widely in research studies. It’s difficult to determine what dose is most appropriate for treating specific health needs.
What’s more, many products contain a blend of ingredients, not just CBD. For example, dietary supplements that contain CBD plus a blend of herbal ingredients may not be safe for everyone, as many herbs have the potential to interact with commonly prescribed medications.
Before you use a CBD product, talk with a healthcare professional to discuss appropriate dosing and any other questions you may have.
If you do decide to use a CBD product, choose one that has been third-party tested for quality and purity.
NuLeaf Naturals and Bluebird Botanicals sell CBD products that undergo testing by accredited third-party laboratories and offer batch reports on their websites.
Although CBD is generally considered safe, it can cause adverse effects such as diarrhea and fatigue in some people. It may also interact with certain medications, causing side effects that may be harmful.
CBD oil has been studied for its potential role in easing the symptoms of many common health conditions, including anxiety and neurological disorders. Plus, it may benefit heart health and help relieve certain types of pain.
Keep in mind that some of these health benefits are related to the use of CBD combined with THC, not CBD alone.
Research investigating the effects of CBD on certain conditions is ongoing, and there is still much to be learned about the potential uses of CBD.
If you’re interested in trying CBD to manage a health condition or to support overall health, check with a healthcare professional first. They can help you decide whether adding a CBD product to your routine is appropriate and help you choose the best product.
Just one thing
Try this today: Be wary of CBD products that are marketed as cures or treatments for health conditions. Although CBD may benefit people with certain conditions, this depends on factors such as dosing, quality, and the presence of THC in the product.
Even though CBD is considered quite safe for most people, it’s important to talk with a healthcare professional before adding any CBD products to your routine, especially if you’re taking any medications.
CBD Oil: What are 9 Proven or Possible Health Benefits?
Medically reviewed by Carmen Pope, BPharm. Last updated on Oct 24, 2022.
With a forecasted revenue of over 20 billion by 2024, the CBD market is booming. 1 But what exactly is CBD and how effective is it? We look at 9 proven or possible health benefits of CBD oil.
What is CBD?
CBD (short for cannabidiol) is one of over 200 chemical compounds known as cannabinoids that are found in cannabis. It is the second most prevalent active compound found in cannabis, behind THC (tetrahydrocannabinol), which is the compound in cannabis that has psychoactive properties and gives people a high. 2
Cannabis is a plant, and there are two main types, Cannabis Indica and Cannabis Sativa. Both marijuana and CBD can be derived from both types, but hemp is only derived from Cannabis Sativa. By law, hemp must contain no more than 0.3% THC (the oil in marijuana that gives you a high) to be called hemp, otherwise, growers are at risk of prosecution under federal law. Hemp is a great resource for making 100% biodegradable, environmentally friendly products such as clothing, packaging, biofuel, building materials, and paper.
CBD derived from hemp contains no more than 0.3% THC and is legal federally but still illegal under some state laws. Cannabis-derived CBD products, on the other hand, are illegal federally but legal under some state laws.
Unlike THC, CBD has no psychoactive properties and will not give you a “high”. There is no evidence it has any abuse or dependence potential and to date, there is no evidence that it is associated with any serious side effects, according to the World Health Organization.
Instead, CBD has been credited with relieving numerous medical conditions, such as epilepsy, anxiety, inflammation, insomnia, and pain. Although “credited” does not mean proven. Because of the historical regulatory landscape, there are hardly any well-conducted trials backing up those claims, although research is expected to ramp up now that laws distinguish between hemp and marijuana.
We look at nine medical conditions where CBD may be, or, has already proven to be, beneficial.
In June 2018, the FDA approved Epidiolex (a plant-based formulation of CBD) to treat seizures for people 2 years of age and older with Dravet syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS), which are two rare forms of epilepsy.
CBD has also been investigated for use in other forms of treatment-resistant epilepsy, usually in addition to conventional epilepsy medications. Results varied, but several trials showed CBD significantly reduced seizure frequency by almost 44% in most people. 3
CBD can interact with other medications used for epilepsy and some serious side effects have been reported, notably, a decrease in liver function when given to people already taking valproate.
Conclusion: CBD is beneficial for treating certain types of epilepsy.
Animal studies have shown that CBD has anti-inflammatory effects and works on the endocannabinoid and pain-sensing systems to relieve pain.
Unfortunately, few human trials investigating the use of CBD as a single agent to relieve pain exist, with most trials using a combination of CBD and THC to relieve pain. Notably, Health Canada has approved a combination medication that contains both THC and CBD in a 1:1 ratio for the relief of central nerve-related pain in multiple sclerosis, and cancer pain that is unresponsive to optimized opioid therapy.
An observational study of CBD treatment reported an improvement in self-reported quality of life measures for people with non-cancer-related pain but there was no statistically significant improvement in those with cancer-related pain or with neurological symptoms. 8
A case series of 47 people with multiple sclerosis reported improvements in pain, walking, and muscle spasms with a combination of CBD and THC. 15
Animal studies have shown that CBD has a positive effect on serotonin levels in the brain, and serotonin. Low levels of serotonin are thought to play a key role in mood as well as pain. 11
Other research (both animal and human) has shown that CBD has anti-inflammatory effects, and it may relieve pain by this mechanism.
CBD can interact with other medications used to treat heart conditions or immunosuppressants so you should always talk with your doctor before taking CBD.
Conclusion: CBD may be beneficial at relieving pain but no high-quality human studies prove this.
Animal studies showed that topical CBD applications relieve pain and inflammation associated with arthritis with few side effects. The topical application of CBD is beneficial because CBD is poorly absorbed when taken by mouth and can cause gastrointestinal side effects. 6
Conclusion: Topical CBD may be beneficial at relieving arthritis but no high-quality human studies prove this.
Pretreatment with 300mg CBD significantly relieved anxiety in 57 healthy males who undertook a simulated public speaking test. However, dosages of 150mg CBD and 600mg CBD did not make any difference to the men’s anxiety levels. 7
Beneficial effects on anxiety after taking CBD were reported in an observational study where 21 patients out of 400 had anxiety. 8
Anxiety scores decreased in a large case series of 72 patients, with 57 patients (79.2%) reporting decreased scores within the first month after CBD treatment. 9
Conclusion: CBD may relieve anxiety before events such as public speaking but it is not known what the optimal dose is.
Animal studies have shown some effect of CBD at relieving depression, possibly related to its strong anti-stress effect after either acute or repeated administration. 16
Animal studies have shown that CBD has a positive effect on serotonin levels in the brain, and serotonin. Low levels of serotonin are thought to play a key role in mood as well as pain. 11
Conclusion: CBD may help with depression but more trials are needed.
6. Sleep disorders
31% of people taking CBD for other conditions such as anxiety or non-cancer-related pain reported improved sleep with CBD. 8
In a large case series of 72 people, 48 patients (66.7%) reported an improvement in sleep scores within the first month, but these fluctuated over time. 9
Other trials of 300 mg of CBD in people with anxiety or depression showed that CBD appeared to preserve sleep architecture, meaning it was unlikely to have any negative effects on sleep quality. 10
Conclusion: CBD does not appear to interfere with sleep and may help people sleep better.
A laboratory study found that CBD prevented human sebocytes from creating too much sebum in addition to having an anti-inflammatory effect, preventing inflammatory cytokines from activating. Because excessive sebum and inflammation are characteristic of acne, topical CBD could be an effective treatment for acne and may prevent or reduce future breakouts. 12,13
Conclusion: Topical CBD may help relieve inflammation and excessive sebum production associated with acne but more trials are needed.
8. Parkinson’s Disease
Several smalls studies have investigated using CBD to relieve symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease, with mostly encouraging results. For most studies, there were no differences across groups with regards to movement-related outcomes; however, groups treated with CBD 300 mg/day had a significantly improved well-being and quality of life as measured by the Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire [PDQ-39]). 15
Conclusion: CBD shows promise for improving the quality of life in people with Parkinson’s disease but larger trials are needed.
9. Nausea and vomiting
Most studies investigating if CBD is beneficial at relieving nausea or vomiting, have used a combination of CBD and THC, rather than just CBD alone. A 2016 review found the combination to be either more effective or as effective as a placebo. 14
More recent research points to THC being more effective at reducing nausea and vomiting than CBD.
Conclusion: CBD is unlikely to be effective by itself for nausea and vomiting. The combination of THC and CBD does seem to be effective for nausea and vomiting.
Many other studies, both on animals and humans, have overwhelmingly concluded that CBD has immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties which may make it a good choice for some autoimmune conditions or inflammation-related complaints. 16
In addition, more trials are needed to investigate its use for numerous other conditions, such as muscle-spasticity in multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, substance-abuse treatment, and diabetes protection.
Side effects of CBD may include nausea, tiredness, and irritability, and it may interact with some medications, such as warfarin.
- Dorbian I. CBD Market Could Reach $20 Billion By 2024, Says New Study. May 20, 2019. Forbes https://www.forbes.com/sites/irisdorbian/2019/05/20/cbd-market-could-reach-20-billion-by-2024-says-new-study/?sh=3c2196f149d0
- Grinspoon P. Cannabidiol (CBD) — what we know and what we don’t. Aug 24th, 2018. Harvard Health Publishing Harvard Medical School. https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/cannabidiol-cbd-what-we-know-and-what-we-dont-2018082414476
- Silvestro S, Mammana S, Cavalli E, Bramanti P, Mazzon E. Use of Cannabidiol in the Treatment of Epilepsy: Efficacy and Security in Clinical Trials. Molecules. 2019;24(8):1459. Published 2019 Apr 12. DOI:10.3390/molecules24081459
- CBD for chronic pain: The science doesn’t match the marketing. Sept 23, 2020. Harvard Health Publishing Harvard Medical School. https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/cbd-for-chronic-pain-the-science-doesnt-match-the-marketing-2020092321003
- Hammell DC, Zhang LP, Ma F, et al. Transdermal cannabidiol reduces inflammation and pain-related behaviors in a rat model of arthritis. Eur J Pain. 2016;20(6):936-948. DOI:10.1002/ejp.818
- Linares IM, Zuardi AW, Pereira LC, Queiroz RH, Mechoulam R, Guimarães FS, Crippa JA. Cannabidiol presents an inverted U-shaped dose-response curve in a simulated public speaking test. Braz J Psychiatry. 2019 Jan-Feb;41(1):9-14. DOI: 10.1590/1516-4446-2017-0015. Epub 2018 Oct 11. PMID: 30328956; PMCID: PMC6781714.
- Gulbransen G, Xu W, Arroll B. Cannabidiol prescription in clinical practice: an audit on the first 400 patients in New Zealand. BJGP Open. 2020;4(1):bjgpopen20X101010. Published 2020 May 1. doi:10.3399/bjgpopen20X101010
- Shannon S, Lewis N, Lee H, Hughes S. Cannabidiol in anxiety and sleep: a large case series. Perm J. 2019;23:18–41. DOI: 10.7812/TPP/18-041
- Crippa JA, Guimarães FS, Campos AC, Zuardi AW. Translational Investigation of the Therapeutic Potential of Cannabidiol (CBD): Toward a New Age. Front Immunol. 2018;9:2009. Published 2018 Sep 21. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2018.02009
- De Gregorio D, McLaughlin RJ, Posa L, et al. Cannabidiol modulates serotonergic transmission and reverses both allodynia and anxiety-like behavior in a model of neuropathic pain. Pain. 2019;160(1):136-150. doi:10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001386
- Oláh A, Tóth BI, Borbíró I, et al. Cannabidiol exerts sebostatic and antiinflammatory effects on human sebocytes. J Clin Invest. 2014;124(9):3713-3724. doi:10.1172/JCI64628
- Oláh A, Markovics A, Szabó-Papp J, Szabó PT, Stott C, Zouboulis CC, Bíró T. Differential effectiveness of selected non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids on human sebocyte functions implicates their introduction in dry/seborrhoeic skin and acne treatment. Exp Dermatol. 2016 Sep;25(9):701-7. doi: 10.1111/exd.13042. Epub 2016 Jun 15. PMID: 27094344.
- Rock EM, Sticht MA, Limebeer CL, Parker LA. Cannabinoid Regulation of Acute and Anticipatory Nausea. Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2016;1(1):113-121. Published 2016 Apr 1. doi:10.1089/can.2016.0006
- Russo M, Calabrò RS, Naro A, Sessa E, Rifici C, D’Aleo G, Leo A, De Luca R, Quartarone A, Bramanti P. Sativex in the management of multiple sclerosis-related spasticity: role of the corticospinal modulation. Neural Plast. 2015;2015:656582. doi: 10.1155/2015/656582. Epub 2015 Jan 29. PMID: 25699191; PMCID: PMC4325203.
- James M. Nichols and Barbara L.F. Kaplan.Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research.Mar 2020.12-31.http://doi.org/10.1089/can.2018.007
- Rieder CR. Cannabidiol in Parkinson’s disease. Braz J Psychiatry. 2020;42(2):126-127. doi:10.1590/1516-4446-2019-0810
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